The United States has just sanctioned various Russian entities in express response to the SolarWinds Orion exploit campaign. But what normative line, if any, is the U.S. saying that Russia crossed?
As a means of coercion short of war, international sanctions have become a key tool in the modern diplomatic toolbox. Sanctions may aim at preventing economic or military development as retaliation for perceived misconduct across a wide spread of policy areas, including human rights, the environment, and nuclear proliferation. In the case of economic sanctions, ongoing controversy over their effectiveness does not seem to have had a limiting effect on their widespread use.