Offensive operations will continue apace in the foreseeable future—conducted by the United States, its allies and its adversaries. The choice is whether and how to engage in them responsibly and minimize cost to societies.
As our lives become increasingly dependent upon computer systems and cyber technologies grow ever more sophisticated, the internet has emerged as the new battleground of the 21st century. From criminals' stealing credit card and social security number information to foreign governments' hacking into American companies’ information systems, cyber attacks can take on myriad forms, prompting the government to formulate new measures to protect online security. Since cyberwarfare knows no territorial bounds, ensuring cybersecurity will also require international cooperation and an updated understanding of jus ad bellum, as it applies to cyber attacks.