This page is a bibliography of articles, books, and other writings related to targeted killing. Curated by Samantha Goldstein, it will be updated and expanded to include new sources and also to include annotations of the sources already on it. Please send new materials or materials the page does not include.
I. Articles/Books About International Law Implications of U.S. Government Targeted Killings.
1. Steven Aftergood, Legality of Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists Reviewed by CRS, FAS (Sep. 10, 2012).
2. Philip Alston, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions (2006).
3. Kenneth Anderson, Efficiency in Bello and ad Bellum: Targeted Killing Through Drone Warfare (Sept. 23, 2011).
4. Kenneth Anderson, Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law, in Legislating the War on Terror: An Agenda for Reform 346 (Benjamin Wittes ed., 2009).
5. Robert P. Barnidge, Jr., A Qualified Defense of American Drone Attacks in Northwest Pakistan Under International Humanitarian Law, 30 B.U. Int’l L.J. 409 (2012).
6. Laurie R. Blank, After "Top Gun": How Drone Strikes Impact the Law of War, 33 U. Pa. J. Int'l L. 675 (2012).
7. Laurie R. Blank & Benjamin R. Farley, Characterizing US Operations in Pakistan: Is the United States Engaged in an Armed Conflict?, 34 Fordham Int'l L.J. 151 (2011).
8. Gabriella Blum & Philip Heymann, Law and Policy of Targeted Killing, 1 Harv. Nat’l Sec. J. 145 (2010).
9. Robert Chesney, Who May Be Killed? Anwar al-Aulaqi as a Case Study in the International Legal Regulation of Lethal Force, in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (forthcoming 2011).
10. Luis E. Chiesa and Alexander K. A. Greenawalt, Beyond War: Bin Laden, Escobar, and the Justification of Targeted Killing, 69 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1371 (2012).
11. John C. Dehn, Targeted Killing, Human Rights and Ungoverned Spaces: Considering Territorial State Human Rights Obligations, 54 Harv. Int'l L.J. Online 84 (2013).
12. Curtis Doebbler, The Illegal Killing of Osama Bin Laden, Jurist (May 5, 2011).
13. Aaron M. Drake, Current U.S. Air Force Drone Operations and Their Conduct in Compliance with International Humanitarian Law - An Overview, 39 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 629 (2011).
14. Toren G. Evers-Mushovic & Michael Hughes, Rules for When There Are No Rules: Examining the Legality of Putting American Terrorists in the Crosshairs Abroad, 18 New Eng. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 157 (2012).
15. Ben Farley, Drones and Pakistan, Consent and Sovereignty, D.C. Exile (Mar. 16, 2013).
16. W. Jason Fisher, Targeted Killings, Norms, and International Law, 45 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 711 (2007).
17. Amos Guiora, Targeted Killing As Active Self-Defense, 36 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 319 (2004).
18. Kevin Jon Heller, 'One Hell of a Killing Machine': Signature Strikes and International Law, 11 J. Int'l Crim. Justice 89 (2013).
19. Samuel Issacharoff & Richard H. Pildes, Targeted Warfare: Individuating Enemy Responsibility (forthcoming 2012).
20. Harold Hongju Koh, The Lawfulness of the U.S. Operation Against Osama bin Laden, Opinio Juris (May 19, 2011).
21. Speech by Harold Hongju Koh, State Department Legal Adviser, at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law (Mar. 25, 2010).
22. Cheri Kramer, The Legality of Targeted Drone Attacks As U.S. Policy, 9 Santa Clara J. Int’l L. 375 (2011).
23. David Kretzmer, Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence?, 16 Eur. J. Int'l L. 171 (2005).
24. Michael W. Lewis, Drones and the Boundaries of the Battlefield, 47 Tex. Int’l L.J. 293 (2012).
25. Michael W. Lewis, Potential Pitfalls of "Strategic Litigation": How the al-Aulaqi Lawsuit Threatened to Undermine International Humanitarian Law, 9 Loy. U. Chi. Int'l L. Rev. 177 (2011).
26. Michael W. Lewis & Vincent J. Vitkowsky, The Use of Drones and Targeted Killing in Counterterrorism, 12 Engage: J. Federalist Soc’y Prac. Groups 73 (2011).
27. Michael McAndrew, Note, Wrangling in the Shadows: The Use of United States Special Forces in Covert Military Operations in the War on Terror, 29 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 153 (2006).
28. Molly McNab & Megan Matthews, Clarifying the Law Relating to Unmanned Drones and the Use of Force: The Relationships Between Human Rights, Self-Defense, Armed Conflict, and International Humanitarian Law, 39 Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 661 (2011).
29. Gregory S. McNeal, Are Targeted Killings Unlawful? A Case Study in Empirical Claims Without Empirical Evidence, in Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (Claire Finkelstein et al. eds., 2012).
30. Nils Melzer, Targeted Killing In International Law (2008).
31. Sean D. Murphy, The International Legality of US Military Cross-Border Operations from Afghanistan into Pakistan, 85 Nav. War. Coll. Int’l L. Stud. 109 (2009).
32. Mary Ellen O’Connell, The Bin Laden Aftermath: Abbottabad and International Law, Foreign Pol’y (May 4, 2011).
33. Mary Ellen O’Connell, Unlawful Killing with Combat Drones: A Case Study of Pakistan, 2004-2009, in Shooting to Kill: The Law Governing Lethal Force in Context (Simon Bronitt ed.) (forthcoming).
34. Andrew C. Orr, Unmanned, Unprecedented, and Unresolved: The Status of American Drone Strikes in Pakistan Under International Law, 44 Cornell Int'l L.J. 729 (2011).
35. Jordan J. Paust, Self-Defense Targetings of Non-State Actors and Permissibility of U.S. Use of Drones in Pakistan, 19 Fla. St. J. Transnat’l L. & Pol’y 237 (2010).
36. Deborah Pearlstein, Keeping up with the Drones', Opinio Juris (Apr. 11, 2013, 11:22 AM).
37. Richard Pildes, The Fundamental Transformation in the Law, Morality and Politics of War: Individuating the Responsibility of “Enemies”, Lawfare (July 24, 2012).
38. Dana Priest, U.S. Military Teams, Intelligence Deeply Involved in Aiding Yemen on Strikes, Wash. Post (Jan. 27, 2010).
39. Tony Rock, Yesterday's Laws, Tomorrow's Technology: The Laws of War and Unmanned Warfare, 24 N.Y. Int'l L. Rev. 39 (2011).
40. Gary Solis, CIA Drone Attacks Produce America’s Own Unlawful Combatants, Wash. Post (Mar. 12, 2010).
41. Gary Solis, Targeted Killing and the Law of Armed Conflict, 60 Naval War C. Rev. 127 (2007).
42. Jonathan Ulrich, The Gloves Were Never on: Defining the President’s Authority to Order Targeted Killing in the War Against Terrorism, 45 Va. J. Int’l L. 1029, 1052 (2005).
43. Benjamin Wittes, Kevin Jon Heller on the Legality of Signature Strikes, Lawfare (Oct. 31, 2012).
44. Benjamin Wittes, Mary Ellen O’Connell is At It Again, Lawfare (Oct. 1, 2011).
45. Statement of the Special Rapporteur Following Meetings in Pakistan, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights (Mar. 14, 2013).
II. Articles/Books Analyzing U.S. Government Targeted Killings Under U.S. (Domestic) Law.
2. ACLU, Obama Administration Files Midnight Brief Defending Secrecy Surrounding “Targeted Killing” Program (June 21, 2012).
3. Kenneth Anderson & Benjamin Wittes, Speaking the Law, Hoover Institution (2013).
4. Ryan Patrick Alford, The Rule of Law at the Crossroads: Consequences of Targeted Killing of Citizens, 2011 Utah L. Rev. 1203.
5. William C. Banks & Peter Raven-Hansen, Targeted Killing and Assassination: The U.S. Legal Framework, 37 U. Rich. L. Rev. 667 (2003).
6. Richard A. Best, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions, Congressional Research Service, Dec. 27, 2011.
7. Curtis A. Bradley & Jack Goldsmith, Foreign Relations Law (4th ed. 2011).
8. Steve Coll, Kill or Capture: Obama’s Troubling Targeted Killing Policy, New Yorker (Aug. 2, 2012).
9. Daryl Copeland, Should the U.S. President Have the Right to Kill American Citizens When Conducting Counterterrorism Operations?, OpenCanada (Feb. 8, 2013).
10. Carla Crandall, Ready . . . Fire . . . Aim! A Case for Applying American Due Process Principles Before Engaging in Drone Strikes, 24 Fla. J. Int'l L. 55 (2012).
11. Alfred Cumming, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions, Congressional Research Service, April 6, 2011.
12. Glenn Greenawald, Attorney General Holder Defends Execution Without Charges, Salon (Mar. 6, 2010).
13. Richard Gross, Different Worlds, Unacknowledged Special Operations and Covert Action, U.S. Army War College, Strategy Research Project (2009).
14. Kevin Jon Heller, Let's Call Killing al-Awlaki What It Is—Murder, Opinio Juris (Apr. 8, 2010).
15. Leila Hudson, Colin S. Owens & Matt Flannes, Drone Warfare: Blowback from the New American Way of War, MEPC (2013).
16. Human Rights Watch, Joint Letter to President Obama on US Drones Trikes and Targeted Killings (Apr. 12, 2013).
17. International Human Rights And Conflict Resolution Clinic (Stanford Law School) And Global Justice Clinic (NYU School Of Law), Living Under Drones: Death, Injury, And Trauma To Civilians From Us Drone Practices In Pakistan (Sept., 2012).
18. Neal Katyal, An Executive Branch 'Drone Court', N.Y. Times (Mar. 20, 2013).
19. Marty Lederman, The U.S. Perspective on the Legal Basis for the bin Laden Operation, Balkinization (May 24, 2011).
20. Richard Murphy & Afsheen John Radsan, Due Process and Targeted Killing of Terrorists, 31 Cardozo L. Rev. 405 (2009).
21. Mary Ellen O’Connell, When Are Drone Killings Illegal?, CNN (Aug. 16, 2012).
22. Scott Shane, Rights Groups, in Letter to Obama, Question Legality and Secrecy of Drone Killings, N.Y. Times (Apr. 12, 2013).
23. Matthew L. Wald, Senate Panel Weighs Privacy Concerns Over Use of Drones, N.Y. Times (Mar. 20, 2013).
24. Jennifer Welsh, Targeted Killing on Trial, OpenCanada (Feb. 8, 2013).
25. George F. Will, A Case for Drones, Wash. Post. (Dec. 7, 2012).
26. Benjamin Wittes, George Will on Drones, Assassination, and Targeted Killing, Lawfare (Dec. 11, 2012).
27. Benjamin Wittes, Is Barack Obama a Serial Killer?, Lawfare (Oct. 25, 2010).
28. John Yoo, Assassination or Targeted Killings After 9/11, 56 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 57 (2011).
29. New York Times Co. v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 11 CIV. 9336 CM, 2013 WL 50209 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 3, 2013).
30. Matar v. Dichter, 500 F. Supp. 2d 284, 287 (S.D.N.Y. 2007) aff'd, 563 F.3d 9 (2d Cir. 2009).
31. First Amendment Coal. v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, C 12-1013 CW, 2012 WL 3027460 (N.D. Cal. July 24, 2012).
32. Al-Bihani v. Obama, 619 F.3d 1 (D.C. Cir. 2010).
III. Articles/Books Making Policy-Related Arguments About U.S. Government Targeted Killings.
1. Kenneth Anderson, They Also Serve Who Sit and Wait in Cubicles Far Away, or, Mark Mazzetti, ‘The Drone Zone’, Lawfare (July 8, 2012).
2. Kenneth Anderson, The Secret ”Kill List” and the President, Volokh Conspiracy (May 29, 2012).
3. Kenneth Anderson, Drone Warfare, the CIA, and Charlie Savage's NYT Article, Volokh Conspiracy (May 28, 2010).
4. Julian Barnes & Adam Entous, Yemen Covert Role Pushed: Foiled Bomb Plot Heightens Talk of Putting Elite U.S. Squads in CIA Hands, Wall St. J. (Nov. 1, 2010).
5. Jo Becker & Scott Shane, Secret ‘Kill List’ Proves a Test of Obama’s Principles and Will, N.Y. Times (May 29, 2012).
6. Louis René Beres, After Osama Bin Laden: Assassination, Terrorism, War, and International Law, 44 Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. 93 (2011).
7. Laurie R. Blank, Laurie Blank on Mark Mazzetti’s ‘The Drone Zone’ – Last in Series from Lewis, Dunlap, Rona, Corn, and Anderson, Lawfare (July 21, 2012).
8. Gabriela Blum, The Dispensable Lives of Soldiers, 2 J. Legal Analysis 115 (2010).
9. John O. Brennan, Asst. to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, The Ethics and Efficacy of the President’s Counterterrorism Strategy, Remarks at the Woodrow Wilson Int’l Center for Scholars (Washington, DC) (Apr. 30, 2012).
10. Andrew Callam, Drone Wars: Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Int'l Aff. Rev. (Feb. 21, 2010).
11. James Cavallaro & Sarah Knuckey, What the U.S. Won't Discuss, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
12. Robert Chesney, Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of the Title 10/Title 50 Debate, 5 J. Nat’l Sec. L. & Pol’y 539 (2012).
13. Drew Christie, 'Drones for America!', N.Y. Times (Mar. 18, 2013).
14.Geoffrey Corn, Geoffrey Corn Responds to Mark Mazzetti, The Drone Zone, Lawfare (July 9, 2012).
15. Cora Currier & Justin Elliot, The Drone War Doctrine We Still Know Nothing About, ProPublica (Feb. 26, 2013).
16. Charles Dunlap, Charles Dunlap on the Discussion Started by Mark Mazzetti, The Drone Zone, Lawfare (July 12, 2012).
17. Editorial, The Trouble With Drones, N.Y. Times (Apr. 7, 2013).
18. C. Christine Fair, For Now, Drones Are the Best Option, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
19. Joshua Foust, Drone Knowns and Unknowns, OpenCanada (Dec. 13, 2012).
20. Joshua Foust & Ashley S. Boyle, A Framework for Discussion: The Strategic Context of Lethal Drones (Aug. 16, 2012).
21. Brian Glyn Williams, The CIA’s Covert Predator Drone War in Pakistan, 2004–2010: The History of an Assassination Campaign, 33 Stud. In Conflict & Terrorism 871 (2010).
22. Jack Goldsmith, Power and Constraint: The Accountable Presidency After 9/11 (2012).
23. Jack Goldsmith, John Brennan’s Speech and the ACLU FOIA Cases, Lawfare (May 1, 2012).
24. Jack Goldsmith, Senator Feinstein on the Obama Administration and Targeted Killing, Lawfare (Mar. 21, 2012).
25. Jack Goldsmith, Fire When Ready, Foreign Pol’y (Mar. 19, 2012).
26. Stephen Holmes, In Case of Emergency: Misunderstanding Tradeoffs in the War on Terror, 97 Calif. L. Rev. 301 (2009).
27. David Ignatius, Drone Attacks in Libya: A Mistake, Wash. Post (Apr. 21, 2011).
28. James Jeffrey, The View From the Wreckage, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
29. Patrick Johnson & Anoop Sarbahi, The Impact of U.S. Drone Strikes on Terrorism in Pakistan, Working Paper (Feb. 25, 2012).
30. John Kaag, Drones, Ethics and the Armchair Soldier, N.Y. Times (Mar. 17, 2013).
31. Jennifer D. Kibbe, Covert Action and the Pentagon, 22 Intell. & Nat’l Sec. 57 (2007).
32. Heidi Kitrosser, Congressional Oversight of National Security Activities: Improving Information Funnels, 29 Cardozo L. Rev. 1049 (2008).
33. Michael W. Lewis, Michael Lewis on ‘The Drone Zone’, Dunlap, Rona, Corn, and Anderson, Lawfare (July 18, 2012).
34. Jane Mayer, The Predator War: What Are The Risks of The C.I.A.’s Covert Drone Program?, New Yorker (Oct. 26, 2009).
35. Mark Mazzetti, Origins of C.I.A.'s Not-So-Secret Drone War in Pakistan, N.Y. Times (Apr. 6, 2013).
36. Mark Mazzetti, The Drone Zone, N.Y. Times (July 6, 2012).
37. Mark McDonald, Are Drone Strikes Worth the Costs?, Int’l Herald Tribune, (Aug. 22, 2012).
38. Tara McKelvey, Inside the Killing Machine, Newsweek (Feb. 13, 2011).
39. Gregory S. McNeal, Kill-Lists and Accountability, Geo. L. J. (forthcoming 2013).
40. Ibrahim Mothana, More Diplomacy, Fewer Drones, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
41. Ibrahim Mothana, How Drones Help Al Qaeda, N.Y. Times (Jun. 13, 2013).
42. Richard Murphy, Responses to the Ten Questions, 37 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 5062 (2011).
43. Anne Joseph O’Connell, The Architecture of Smart Intelligence: Structuring and Overseeing Agencies in the Post 9/11 World, 94 Calif. L. Rev. 1655 (2006).
44. Avery Plaw, Drones Save Lives, American and Other, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
45. Nathaniel A. Raymond, Brittany Card & Ziad Al Achkar, The Case Against Humanitarian Drones, OpenCanada (Dec. 12, 2012).
46. Gabor Rona, Gabor Rona on Targeted Killing: A Response to Michael Lewis, Opinio Juris (July 30, 2012).
47. Gabor Rona, Gabor Rona Also Comments on Mark Mazzetti, The Drone Zone, & Geoffrey Corn and Kenneth Anderson’s Posts, Lawfare (July 12, 2012).
48. Mirza Shahzad Akbar, The Folly of Drone Attacks and U.S. Strategy, CNN (Oct. 4, 2012).
49. Scott Shane, The Moral Case for Drones, N.Y. Times (July 14, 2012).
50. Scott Shane, Yemen's Leader Praises U.S. Drone Strikes, N.Y. Times (Sept. 29, 2012).
51. Peter W. Singer, Wired for War: the Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century (2009).
52. Peter W. Singer, The Robotics Revolution, OpenCanada (Dec. 11, 2012).
53. Ritika Singh, Bruce Riedel on Al Qaeda’s Many Faces, Lawfare (Aug. 5, 2012).
54. Sara Sorcher, Insiders: Drone Strikes Right Approach in Current Phase of War on Terror, Nat’l J. (July 9, 2012).
55. Bradley Jay Strawser, The Morality of Actual Use, N.Y. Times (Sept. 26, 2012).
56. Christopher Tuckwood, Drones for Human Rights, OpenCanada (Jan. 17, 2013).
57. Matthew Wald, For Civilian Drones, the Sky is the Limit, N.Y. Times (Mar. 18, 2013).
58. Aaron Zelin, Dodging the Drones: How Militants Have Responded to the Covert US Campaign, AFPAK (Aug. 31, 2012).
59. Micah Zenko, The Long Third War, For. Pol’y (Oct. 30, 2012).
60. Micah Zenko, Lethal Drones: UAVs Are a Different Kind of Weapon, and One That is Quickly Proliferating, OpenCanada (Dec. 10, 2012).
61. Editorial, How Humanitarian Drones Could be Used, OpenCanada (Jan. 17, 2013).
62. Interview, Gregory Johnsen on Yemen, the U.S., and Drones, OpenCanada (Dec. 14, 2012).
63. Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World (Claire Finkelstein, Jens David Ohlin, & Andrew Altman, eds., 2012).
IV. Proposals to Enhance Oversight of U.S. Government Targeted Killing Policy.
1. Samuel S. Adelsberg, Bouncing the Executive’s Blank Check: Judicial Review and the Targeting of Citizens, 6 Harv. L. & Pol’y Rev. 437 (2012).
2. Al-Aulaqi v. Obama, 727 F. Supp. 2d 1 (D.D.C. 2010).
3. Philip Alston, The CIA and Targeted Killings Beyond Borders, 2 Harv. Nat’l Sec. J. 283 (2011).
4. Jane Y. Chong, Targeting the Twenty-First-Century Outlaw, 122 Yale L.J. 724 (2012).
5. Kathleen Clark, Congress’s Right to Counsel in Intelligence Oversight, 2011 U. Ill. L. Rev. 915.
6. Graham Cronogue, A New AUMF: Defining Combatants in the War on Terror, 22 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 377 (2012).
7. John C. Dehn & Kevin Jon Heller, Debate, Targeted Killing: The Case of Anwar Al-Aulaqi, 159 U. Pa. L. Rev. Pennumbra 175 (2011).
8. Mike Dreyfuss, My Fellow Americans, We Are Going to Kill You: The Legality of Targeting and Killing U.S. Citizens Abroad, 65 Vand. L. Rev. 249 (2012).
9. Kristen E. Eichensehr, Comment, On Target? The Israeli Supreme Court and the Expansion of Targeted Killings, 116 Yale L.J. 1873 (2007).
10. El-Shifa Pharm. Indus. Co. v. United States, 607 F.3d 836 (D.C. Cir. 2010) (en banc).
11. Jonathan D. Forgang, “The Right of the People”: The NSA, The FISA Amendments Act of 2008, and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance of Americans Overseas, 78 Fordham L. Rev. 217 (2009).
12. Gregory S. McNeal, Five Ways to Reform the Targeted Killing Program, Lawfare (Apr. 23, 2013).
13. Note, Due Process Rights and the Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: The Unconstitutional Scope of Executive Killing Power, 44 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 1353 (2011).
14. Afsheen John Radsan, Loftier Standards for the CIA’s Remote-Control Killing, Wm. Mitchell College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Accepted Paper No. 2010-11 (May 2010).
15. Afsheen John Radsan & Richard Murphy, Measure Twice, Shoot Once: Higher Care for CIA Targeted Killing, 2011 U. Ill. L. Rev 1201.
16. John Rizzo, 9/11: Three Major Mistakes, Defining Ideas: Hoover Inst. J. (Sept. 8, 2011).
17. Anthony M. Shults, The “Surveil or Kill” Dilemma: Separation of Powers and the FISA Amendments Act’s Warrant Requirement for Surveillance of U.S. Citizens Abroad, 86 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1590 (2011).
18. Paul W. Taylor, Limited Targeted Killings: A Competition of Paradigms.
V. Articles/Books Related to Civilian Casualty Rates Associated with U.S. Government Targeted Killing Policy.
1. Peter Bergen & Katherine Tiedemann, The Year of the Drone: An Analysis of U.S. Drone Strikes in Pakistan, 2004-2010, New America Foundation (Feb. 24, 2010).
2. Peter Bergen & Katherine Tiedemann, There Were More Drone Strikes – And Far Fewer Civilians Killed, Foreign Pol’y (Dec. 21, 2010).
3. Peter Bergen & Katherine Tiedemann, Washington's Phantom War: The Effects of the U.S. Drone Program in Pakistan, Foreign Aff. (July/Aug. 2011).
4. Jacob Beswick, The Drone Wars and Pakistan’s Conflict Casualties, 2010 (Oxford Research Group, Working Paper, 2011).
6. Adam Entous, Special Report: How the White House Learned to Love the Drone, Reuters (May 18, 2010).
7. International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic (Stanford Law School) & Global Justice Clinic (NYU School Of Law), Living Under Drones: Death, Injury, and Trauma To Civilians From Us Drone Practices In Pakistan (Sept. 2012).
8. David Kilcullen & Andrew McDonald Exum, Death From Above, Outrage Down Below, N.Y. Times (May 16, 2009).
9. Mapping US Drone and Islamic Militant Attacks in Pakistan, BBC News (July 22, 2010).
10. Salman Masood, Pakistani General, in Twist, Credits Drone Strikes, N.Y. Times (Mar. 9, 2011).
11. Avery Plaw, Matthew S. Fricker & Brian Glyn Williams, Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan, 5 Perspectives on Terrorism 51 (2011).
12. Gareth Porter & Shah Noori, U.N. Reported Only a Fraction of Civilian Deaths from U.S. Raids, Inter Press Service (March 18, 2011).
13. Adam Roberts, Lives and Statistics: Are 90% of War Victims Civilians?, Survival (June/July 2010).
14. Bill Roggio & Alexander Mayer, Charting the Data for US Airstrikes in Pakistan, 2004-2012, Long War J. (last updated Aug. 24, 2012).
15. Bill Roggio & Alexander Mayer, Analysis: US Air Campaign in Pakistan Heats Up, Long War J. (Jan. 5, 2010).
16. United Nations Assistance Mission In Afghanistan, Afghanistan Annual Report On Protection Of Civilians In Armed Conflict, Mid Year Report 2010 (Aug. 2010).
17. Joe Wolverton II, Double-Tap Drone Strikes: Kill Them All, Don't Bother Sorting Them Out, The New Am. (Oct. 2, 2012).
18. Chris Woods, Drone War Exposed—The Complete Picture of CIA Strikes in Pakistan, Bureau Of Investigative Journalism (Aug. 24, 2011).
19. Chris Woods, Attacking the Messenger: How the CIA Tried to Undermine Drone Study, Bureau Of Investigative Journalism (Aug. 12, 2011).
20. Chris Woods, Pakistan Drone Strikes—Our Methodology, Bureau Of Investigative Journalism (Aug. 10, 2011).