Failed efforts suggest a federalist system based in Baghdad might create new problems.
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Many states in the Arab world have debated the value of decentralization and federalism, but none has successfully adopted a constitution that satisfies those objectives.
As Hamas explores new tactics following the March of Return, the fate of civilians in Gaza remains uncertain.
“Federalism” has specific connotations in the Middle East, which must be understood before suggesting federal reforms as solutions to the region’s most persistent conflicts.
Events of the last decade suggest a growing momentum for federalist governance around the world.
Daniel Byman analyzes the benefits and costs of continued U.S. support for the Saudi and Emirati intervention in Yemen.
At best, proxies can hope for resources and assistance from a foreign power—but they should never count on it lasting over time.
Governments that believe proxy wars will let them have their cake and eat it too should think again.
Although the enduring collapse of the Islamic State is a step forward, the Middle East’s troubles run deep, and new dangers will likely emerge or worsen.