The technological frontiers of conflict include cyberwar, robotics, and autonomous lethal weapons. It is time to add a new one: the use of neuroscience in conflict. Whether by creating new weapons to be deployed against an enemy, cognitive enhancements to be used by soldiers to advantage themselves against an enemy, or new methods of rehabilitation for wounded and recovering victims of war, neuroscience is becoming part of the science of conflict and security. The legal and ethical issues are of course legion and barely explored. The Royal Society has a new study out on these possibilities, Neuroscience, conflict and security (Brain Module 3, February 2012). It is readable by non-medical or scientific specialists, and reasonably short.