Rebecca Crootof

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Rebecca Crootof is the Executive Director of the Information Society Project and a Research Scholar and Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School. Her primary areas of research include technology law, public international law, and torts; much of her work focuses on questions of when and how law can channel technological development to promote socially desirable aims. Work available at

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The Russia Connection

The DNC Hack Demonstrates the Need for Cyber-Specific Deterrents

The United States' seemingly insufficient reaction may have been informed by international law; the United States might have responded to the DNC hack as it did because international law did not permit it to do more. Limited state recourse to escalatory self-help measures is a feature of the modern international legal order—but, as the DNC hack, Sony hack, and growing number of similar cyber-enabled interferences demonstrate, in cyberspace this feature may have become a bug.