Jacob N. Shapiro

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Jacob N. Shapiro is a professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton University and director of the Empirical Studies of Conflict Project. The views expressed here are those of the author and do not reflect the position of any organization.

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Foreign Policy Essay

Managing and Mitigating Foreign Election Interference

Editor’s Note: With the exception of the president of the United States, we all know that Russia and other powers have run amok in their attempts to influence U.S. elections and those of other democracies around the world. Learning the scope of the problem, however, has proved difficult. In a groundbreaking study, Arya Goel, Diego Martin and Jacob Shapiro, all of Princeton University, find that more than 20 countries have been targeted. Russia (no surprise) is by far the most active, but Iran, China and Saudi Arabia all are joining the fray.