States and other stakeholders can use Article 2(4) of the U.N. Charter to bar not just uses of force in cyberspace but also threats of such force by equal measure.
Duncan B. Hollis is Laura H. Carnell Professor of Law at Temple University Law School. He recently co-edited Defending Democracies: Combating Foreign Election Interference in a Digital Age (Oxford University Press, 2021) and is editor of the award-winning Oxford Guide to Treaties (Oxford University Press, 2nd, ed., 2020). He regularly writes on issues of international law, norms, and global cybersecurity. Professor Hollis is a Non-Resident Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, an elected member of the American Law Institute, and a regular consultant for the Microsoft Corporation's Digital Diplomacy team.
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A workshop with key stakeholders considered the state of fragmented cyber norms processes and the prospects for their consolidation.
National security adviser John Bolton is often caricatured as a unilateralist. One of his legacies during the George W. Bush administration, however, was a significant new multilateral effort: the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI).