Introducing a new framework for conceptualizing and categorizing ideologically complex extremists to aid detection, prevention, and deradicalization/disengagement efforts.
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross is a scholar, author, practitioner, and entrepreneur who is the founder and chief executive officer of Valens Global and leads a project on domestic extremism for the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD). Gartenstein-Ross is the author or volume editor of over 30 books and monographs, most recently “Enemies Near and Far: How Jihadist Groups Strategize, Plot, and Learn.”
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Editor’s Note: The war against terrorism involves fighting more than terrorists. Some groups use guerrilla war, and still others are proto-states. The post-9/11 struggle has also brought the United States into greater contact with warlords, clans, and other non-state actors. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Jacob Zenn of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies and the Jamestown Foundation, respectively, try to bring a sense of order to these many actors, offering a spectrum of "violent non-state actors" as a way to better conceptualize them.