Alex Campbell

Alex Campbell is a research assistant at the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he studies offensive cyber strategies and Internet governance. He holds a B.A. and M.A. from Columbia University.

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Cybersecurity and Deterrence

Persistent Engagement with Chinese Characteristics

In 2018, U.S. cyber strategy shifted from a reactive, deterrence-based approach to the forward-postured, proactive policy of persistent engagement. Persistent engagement broadly entails more active defense against cyberattacks and a more constant pace of operations. The strategy rests on theoretical conceptions of the cyber domain recently advanced by scholars, but also on the argument that America’s competitors have long been practicing the same. For example, U.S.