As a follow up to my post of yesterday about cyber in the Russo-Ukrainian conflict, here is another thought from Admiral (Ret.) James Stavridis, the former commander of NATO. In his view NATO should:
Conven[e] allies with cyber-capabilities (this is not a NATO specialty) to consider options — at a minimum to defend Ukraine if it is attacked in this domain (as Georgia was).
If accompanied by some form of declaratory policy this might help with de-escalation. If mistaken as an offensive measure it would not.